1. Basic term:
Ferrous metals: Iron and iron alloys are both called ferrous metals. Such as steel, pig iron, iron alloy, cast iron, etc.
Pure iron: Very pure iron, chemically pure iron has almost zero carbon content, and industrial pure iron has a carbon content of <0.05%. Pure iron is very soft and is generally not used in practice.
Iron-carbon alloy: An alloy based on iron and carbon as the main additive element, collectively referred to as iron-carbon alloy. Such as steel and pig iron.
Pig iron: An iron-carbon alloy with iron content of 2% to 4.3% (also referred to as 3.5% -5.5%, 2.11% -6.67%), which is smelted in a blast furnace, is called pig iron. Pig iron is hard and brittle, lacks toughness, and has almost no plastic deformation ability. Therefore, it cannot be formed by forging, rolling, drawing, etc. It is mainly used for steelmaking and manufacturing castings, such as white iron, gray iron, and ductile iron. . It is also customary to call pig iron for steelmaking and cast iron for short.
White iron: Pig iron with carbon distributed in the form of Fe3C is called white iron, and its fracture is silver-white, hard and brittle, and cannot be machined. It is the raw material for steelmaking, so it is also called steelmaking pig iron.
Gray iron: Pig iron in which carbon is distributed in the form of flake graphite is called gray iron, and its fracture is silver-gray. Because graphite is soft and lubricating, this pig iron has good free cutting, wear resistance and casting properties. advantage. However, the existence of flake graphite reduces its tensile strength, making it unable to be forged and rolled, and can only be used to manufacture various castings, such as casting machine bed and iron pipes. Therefore, this pig iron is usually called cast pig iron.
Ductile iron: The distribution of carbon with nodular graphite is called nodular cast iron, and its mechanical properties and processability are close to steel.
Steel: Iron-carbon alloys with carbon content between 0.04% -2.3% (also known as 0.03% -1.2%) are called steel. In order to ensure its toughness and plasticity, the carbon content generally does not exceed 1.7%. In addition to iron and carbon, the main elements of steel are silicon, manganese, sulfur, and phosphorus.
Non-ferrous metals: Also known as non-ferrous metals, refer to metals and alloys other than ferrous metals, such as copper, tin, lead, zinc, aluminum, etc.
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