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technical article
Matters needing attention when using glass thermometer
2011-8-24 15:41:26

玻璃温度计测量温度 的操作中,如果导致 测量 结果 不确定的 ,可能有 几个来源, 基本上可分为两大 种: 一是玻璃温度计在分度或 检定时 由标准器本身的不确定度和标准设备带来的 ;二是 玻璃温度计的特性 及测试方法所带来的。 In the operation of glass thermometers for measuring temperature , if the measurement results are uncertain , there may be several sources, but they can basically be divided into two categories: one is that the glass thermometer is indexed or calibrated by the standard itself. Uncertainty and standard equipment ; Second , the characteristics of glass thermometers and test methods. Generally manifested in the following points :
First, personnel readings

温度计刻线不 保持 垂直 的话 , 这样产生的 读取示值就会偏高或 偏低。 If when reading the temperature count value , the eye's line of sight and the thermometer 's score line are not kept vertical , the reading display value generated in this way will be higher or lower. 对于一等水银温度计 来说 , 通过正反两方面并取其平均值,以消除或 减小读数 偏差。 However, for first-class mercury thermometers , the positive and negative aspects can be used and the average value can be taken to eliminate or reduce the deviation of the reading .
Ruler displacement

温度计 的玻璃 受热后产生热膨胀 现象 所以会 导致内标式温度计的标尺与毛细管的相对位置产生微小的变化,从而影响温度示值。 Because the glass of the thermometer generates thermal expansion after being heated , it will cause a slight change in the relative position of the scale and capillary of the internal standard thermometer, which will affect the temperature indication. 一般 情况 而言有热膨胀产生的此项分量可 忽略不计。 In general , this component due to thermal expansion is negligible.
Third, the capillary is not uniform

在标尺定点、刻度和检定 ,玻璃温度计是在几个规定的点上进行的 这种分度和检定方法 是在 把毛细管看成均匀的 基础上进行的 实际情况并 不是 如此。 Generally, when the scale is set, calibrated, and verified , the glass thermometer is performed at several specified points. This method of indexing and verification is performed on the basis of the capillary as a uniform , but the actual situation is not in this way. 孔径不 均匀 所以 会造成小间隔刻度 存在 误差。 Because the pore size of the capillary is not uniform , it will cause errors in the small interval scale . 对于准确度不高的温度计 来说 ,该误差可 忽略不计,但对于标准 水银温度计 来说 必须 进行修正。 However, for thermometers with low accuracy , this error can be ignored, but for standard mercury thermometers , corrections must be made.
Four, exposed liquid column

理论上 来说 ,全浸式温度计 局浸式温度计 使用的条件 ,应 与分度的条件一 Generally speaking , the conditions of use of full immersion thermometers and local immersion thermometers should be the same as the graduation conditions . 有时 会因为 条件 所限, 全浸式 温度计 要做局浸式 温度计的 使用 ,露出液柱的影响会造成温度计示值偏低。 However, sometimes due to the limitation of the conditions , when the full immersion thermometer is to be used as a local immersion thermometer , the influence of the exposed liquid column will cause the thermometer to display a low value. 局浸式 的温度计 也会 因为 露出液柱在分度时与使用时的环境温度不同, 由此 产生对示值影响。 At the same time , the temperature of the local immersion thermometer will be different from the ambient temperature when the liquid column is indexed and used, which will affect the displayed value. 两种情况对测温造成的影响,必须 对露出液柱 温度修正来消除这一影响。 The effect of the above two situations on temperature measurement must be corrected by the temperature of the exposed liquid column to eliminate this effect.
Six, zero change

Zero change caused by thermal aftereffect of glass. 就是如果 当玻璃感温泡所感受的温度 在不断 升高时, 那么 玻璃分子也 随之进行重新排列, 温度升高 时计会 使得玻璃感温泡的体积增大 ,如果 这时将温度计从高温介质中取出 ,那么 突然 降温会使 玻璃分子的重新排列跟不上温度的变化, 从而使温度感温泡的体积不能恢复原状。 The thermal aftereffect of glass is that if the temperature experienced by the glass temperature-sensitive bubble is continuously increasing, the glass molecules will be rearranged accordingly. When the temperature increases , the meter will increase the volume of the glass temperature-sensitive bubble . If the thermometer is taken out of the high-temperature medium at this time , the sudden drop in temperature will cause the rearrangement of glass molecules to keep up with the temperature change , so that the volume of the temperature-sensitive bubble cannot return to its original state. 使 感温泡的体积比使用前稍 大了一些 ,因此 会造成此时的零位比使用前有所降低。 The thermal aftereffect will make the volume of the temperature-sensitive bubble slightly larger than before use , so the zero position at this time will be lower than that before use. 需要相当长的时间。 It takes quite a long time to restore the previous value if the zero position . This is why the zero change of the standard thermometer occurs. The change of the zero position directly affects the measurement uncertainty of the temperature.