、 敲击手压法 I. Percussion
经常会遇到仪器运行时好时坏的现象，这种现象绝大多数是由于接触不良或 者是 虚焊造成的。 When in use, you often encounter the phenomenon of good and bad when the instrument is running. This phenomenon is mostly caused by poor contact or virtual welding. In this case, knocking and hand pressing can be used.
所谓的“ 敲击 ” 就是对可能产生故障的部位，通过小橡皮鎯头或 者 其他 恶 敲击物轻轻敲打插件板或 者 部件，看看 是不是 会引起出错或 者 停机故障。 The so-called " knock " is to gently tap the plug-in board or component with a small rubber hoe or other evil knocker to see if it may cause an error or shutdown failure. 的 时 侯 ，关上电源后对插的部件和插头和座重新用手压牢， 然后 开机试试 是不是 会消除故障。 The so-called " hand pressure " means that when the fault occurs , the components and plugs and sockets that are plugged in are pressed again by hand after the power is turned off, and then the power is turned on to try to eliminate the fault. 后 又不正常 的 时 侯 ，最好先将所有接头重插牢再试， 如果还是不可以的话 ，只好另想办法了。 If it is found that the shell is normal after being tapped, and then it is abnormal after tapping , it is best to re-plug all the connectors firmly and try again. If it is still not possible , you have to find another way.
、 观察法 Observation
利用视觉、嗅觉、触觉。 Use vision, smell, and touch when using. 某些时候，损坏了的元件会变色、起泡或 者 出现烧焦的斑点； 而 烧坏的器件会产生一些特殊的气味；短路的芯片会发烫；用肉眼也能观察到虚焊或 者 脱焊处。 At some point, damaged components can become discolored, blistering, or scorched spots; burned devices can produce some special odors; short-circuited chips can become hot; and false soldering or Person desoldering.
、 排除法 Exclusion method
The so-called elimination method is to determine the cause of the fault by removing some plug-in boards and components in the plug-in machine. 者 器件后仪表恢复正常，就说明故障发生在那里。 When the instrument returns to normal after removing a certain plug-in board or device, it indicates that the fault occurred there.
、 替换法 Fourth , the replacement method
者 有足够的备件。 Requires two instruments of the same model or sufficient spare parts. 是不是 消除。 Replace a good spare with the same component on the faulty machine to see if the fault is eliminated.
、 对比法 V. Contrast
Two instruments of the same model are required, and one is operating normally. 比 如，万用表、示波器等。 To use this method, you must have the necessary equipment, such as a multimeter and an oscilloscope. ： 电压比较、波形比较、静态阻抗比较、输出结果比较、电流比较等。 According to the nature of comparison : voltage comparison, waveform comparison, static impedance comparison, output result comparison, current comparison, etc.
然 后检测一些点的信号再比较所测的两组信号， 如果 有不同，则可以断定故障出在这里。 The specific method is: let the faulty meter and normal meter run under the same situation, then check the signals at some points and compare the two sets of signals measured. If there are differences, you can conclude that the fault is here. 这种方法要求维修人员 必须 具有相当的知识和技能。 But this method requires the maintenance personnel to have considerable knowledge and skills.
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