Measurement means "measurement". 报道在早期汉译受日文"计量"、"计测"等词汇的影响，在汉语中出现了"计量"和"测量"两种表达。 According to reports of prefabricated thermocouples, in the early Chinese translation, they were influenced by Japanese terms such as "metering" and "measurement", and two expressions, "metering" and "measurement", appeared in Chinese. Since the similarities and differences between the two are not accurately defined, a long-term chaos arises from this. In recent years, the discussion on nouns has gradually deepened. Many experts believe that measurement and measurement should not be used together. They suggest that in Chinese translation and use, "measurement" or "metrology" corresponds to "metrology", and "measurement" corresponds to "measurement". . More and more people are moving towards this recognition. However, new questions arise: Since metrology is defined as the science of measurement, why not use "measurement" or "measurement" to express it? This implies that the dispute between "measurement" and "metering" may continue. In fact, long before the term “metrology” was introduced to China, Chinese had “quotation” and “measurement” to correspond to measurement. Due to the lack of uniform definition or understanding of basic terminology, problems have arisen. And the definition has been revised, we should carefully summarize the usage of the words "measurement" and "measurement" under the guidance of the new standard, and distinguish the similarities and differences between "measurement" and "measurement".
I. Reflections on the definitions of "measurement" and "measurement"
"Measurement" in Chinese usage is basically consistent with the definition of measurement in VIM, that is, "a set of operations to determine the value of a measurement". Measurement activities exist in all areas of science and technology. In some departments, such as astronomy, meteorology, surveying and mapping, measurement has even become its main job. However, all these measurements are not called "metering", and only measurements performed by the metrology department are called "metering". This has become a habit. In the General Terms and Definitions of Measurement (JJF1001-99), in order to take care of habits, the definitions of the two terms "measurement" and "measurement" have been made corresponding to measurement. Among them, the definition of "measurement" is consistent with VIM, and "measurement" is defined as "achieving unity of unity and accurate and reliable measurement". This "meter" entry is rather vague in this planetarium. What does it mean to "unify the unit", does it not require unity for other measurements? What is called "quantity accurate and reliable measurement", does the difference between "metering" and "measurement" lie in the level of technology? This definition is specious, without grasping the essence. Looking back on Chinese usage habits, "measurement" is an activity for obtaining value information; "measurement" must not only obtain value information, but also realize the transmission or traceability of value information. "Measurement" as a type of operation has a wide range of objects? "Measurement" as a type of operation, the object is a measuring instrument. "Measurement" can be isolated; "Measurement" exists in a system of value transmission or traceability In summary, after further induction, "metering" used in Chinese as a type of operation should be understood as follows: measurement of measuring instruments in order to achieve the transmission of value or traceability. From this perspective, "metering" as A type of operation is manifested in activities such as verification, calibration, comparison, and testing (for measuring instruments). The above viewpoints reveal the essential characteristics of "measurement" as a type of operation in the Chinese habit. "Measurement" and "measurement" are clearly distinguished in usage.
In the latest revised JJF1001-1998 "General Measurement Terms and Definitions", "measurement" is defined as: activities that achieve unity of unity and accurate and reliable value. There are two points worth noting: This revision will correspond to "metrology" in English, not measurement; the subject of the definition is "activity", not "measurement". This is an important advance in the study of metrological terminology. From this definition, it is not difficult to understand why only the measurement performed by the metrology department is called "metering". Because the measurement undertaken by the metrology department is one of the activities of "unifying the unit and measuring the value accurately and reliably". Metrology provides basic guarantees for unity of unit and accurate and reliable value for measurements performed by other departments such as astronomy, meteorology, surveying and mapping. These basic guarantees cannot be achieved by the measurement activities of these departments. We can understand it this way: Every activity that guarantees the effective operation of "metering" and the unity of the unit to achieve accurate and reliable value is called "metering work". These tasks include the unification of measurement units, the study of measurement methods (such as instruments, operations, data processing, etc.), the establishment and management of measurement value transmission systems, and the formulation and implementation of laws and regulations related to these tasks.
阐述习惯用法的分析 Analysis of idiom usage in assembled thermocouples
In past usage, the most common confusion appeared on all measurement-related terms. It can be seen from the changes in the relevant terms in different versions of the Chinese version of VIM that the translators have troubled their minds for measurement. For the same term in VIM, some versions use "measurement" and some versions use "measurement". For example: "Measureable quantity" and "Measureable quantity", "Measured quantity" and "Measured quantity", "Measuring method" and "Measuring method", "Measuring error" and "Measuring error", and many more. People find it easier to use "measurement" in these terms. This is because the above terms can be used in addition to the transmission of magnitude, that is, they can exist outside activities that achieve unity of unit and accurate and reliable magnitude.
Conversely, when it comes to "activities that achieve unity of unity and accurate and reliable values" or the object of the activity is a measuring instrument, "measurement" must be used. For example, "measurement method", "legal measurement", "measurement department", "measurement supervision" and so on.
In fact, there is no need to strictly distinguish between "measurement" and "measurement" in some occasions, only whether it is more in line with customary differences. For example, people use "metrics" obviously more smoothly than "metrics". But the use of "measurement standards" does not cause misunderstanding. Generally, as summarized in this article, the activity or activity object in the value transfer system is a measuring instrument, and "metering" is used, and the other (for determining the value) is "measurement". However, when it comes to the measuring instrument itself, two expressions of "metering" and "measuring" can be used. Examples include "measuring instruments" and "gauges"; "measuring standards" and "measuring standards (standards)"; "measuring equipment" and "measuring equipment". Sometimes the word "meter" or "test" can be omitted, such as "gauge", "range", "quantity limit" and so on. In common usage, the term "work measuring device" is superfluous. According to the definition of JJF1001-1991, it is "a measuring instrument used for on-site measurement but not for verification work". In fact, this refers to the measuring instrument, there is no need to add a snake to create a "work measuring instrument".
In order to avoid confusion, the selection and definition of terminology should be in line with international norms (such as VIM) as much as possible, and efforts should be made to reduce the distance and steps of international standards. Use "metrics" and "metering" to correspond to the metarology. There is no contradiction in domestic consensus and habits. For measurement, many people now suggest to use "measurement" in Chinese. This is actually a difficult one-step solution. In the past literature, especially in a large number of documented laws and regulations, "metering" has become a very frequently used term. If all of them are suddenly replaced by "measurement", it will definitely cause new difficulties. In fact, the Chinese version of VIM has been tried a few years ago. As a result, readers feel very different whether they use "measurement" or "measurement" all. This article recommends: Regarding the use of terminology, it should be noted whether the operation or activity involved is limited to the mass transmission or traceability system, and whether the object is a measuring instrument, and the words "metering" and "measurement" are distinguished.
For example, 3.1 "measurement" in JJF1001-1998 is defined as "a set of operations to determine the value of a quantity". According to the analysis of this article, this kind of operation should not be limited to the mass transmission or traceability system, and its object is not limited to the measuring instrument. Common related terms are: measurement method, measurement principle, measurement signal, measurement result, measurement error, measurement uncertainty, etc. As another example, 2.2 "metrology" in JJF1001-1998 is defined as "activities that achieve unity of unity and accurate and reliable value". According to the analysis of this article, this type of activity is often related to mass transmission or traceability systems, and its objects are related to measuring instruments. Common related terms are: legal measurement, legal measurement unit, measurement guarantee, measurement supervision, measurement review, measurement confirmation, etc. For related terms that directly describe measuring instruments, the words "measurement" and "metering" can be used. Common related terms are: measuring instruments and measuring instruments, measuring standards and measuring standards (standards), measuring equipment and measuring equipment, as well as measuring tools, ranges and limits.
讲诉以上建议是在搞清名词术语正确定义的基础上，尊重语言演变的连续性规律，适当兼顾习惯，积极靠拢而非全盘照搬VIM，从而使计量术语的汉语表达保持一定的中国特色 According to the assembled thermocouple, the above suggestions are based on the correct definition of terms, respecting the continuity of language evolution, taking into account habits, and actively approaching rather than copying VIM in a holistic manner, so as to maintain a certain expression of Chinese in terms of measurement. Chinese characteristics